Menalamba rebellion


In December 1895, two months after the French capture of Antananarivo, popular resistance to French rule emerged in the form of the menalamba ("red shawl") uprising. This guerrilla war against foreigners, Christianity, and political corruption, quickly spread throughout the island and was principally conducted by common peasants who wore shawls smeared with the red laterite soil of the highlands. Execution by the French of Rainandriamampandry and Ratsimamanga